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[Fredric Rice, The Skeptic Tank: The authorship of these files on cults has his or her own motivations for providing them and will contain his or her own bias. What I find typical is that individuals and organizations which report on cults are usually themselves a competition cult yet like to think of themselves as "a religion, not a cult." In actual fact, _ALL_ religions are cults by the primary, secondary, and terciary usage definition of the term. Some of the information you find here is inaccurate and contains urban legend -- take what you find with a grain of salt. If you wish to acquire a copy of the Law Enforcement Guide on Occult Crime, contact myself at frice@stbbs.com or at The Skeptic Tank (818) 335-9601 and I'll forward the address and information you need.] Practical Philosophy Foundation Practical Philosophy Foundation (US)/ School of Economic Science (UK) Known in Britain as the School of Economic Science (SES), the London-based organisation was in 1984 the subject of Secret Cult, a book-length exposé by two Evening Standard journalists. They accused SES of deceptive recruiting, causingbroken marriages and having an adverse effect on members' health. They also claimed that the four independent schools run by the School (where Sanskrit is a compulsory subject from the age of four) kept parents in the dark about the school's Eastern-influenced curriculum. Two of the schools were closed down after the publicity, but two still operate. SES advertises on the London Underground, offering evening courses in 'philosophy' and 'economics'. SES was formed in the 1930s by a Glaswegian called Andrew MacLaren, who, after leaving the Labour Party, wanted a forum for his breed of non-welfare socialism. It was his son, Leon, who introduced Eastern thought and physical asceticism to the movement. In this he was influenced heavily by George Ivanovich Gurdjieff, who one investigator has described as a 'Greek-Armenian mystic, carpet dealer, gold prospector, typewriter mechanic, dancing master, guru and some say con-man'. Gurdjieff believed that a combination of self-deprivation, manual tasks and prescribed chanting could redeem a man from flabby corruption. Mozart,Shakespeare and traditional gender roles were also deemed central to the school's philosophy. Critics of SES point to the fact that it uses advertising and initial lectures that make no reference to the movement's Gurdjieffian beliefs. The movement's property portfolio includes an Oxfordshire estate, a 'gigantic mansion' in Hampstead, Preston Brinscall Hall in Manchester, two adjacent town houses in Kensington, and at one point one of the Virgin Islands (which has now been sold to Richard Branson). To comment about this Website, our paper and all associated articles, you can mail us at the Observer: bill@dial.pipex.com

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