From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Curtis Hoffmann)
Subject: Cheats, Cliches, Cartoons, Anime...
Organization: Digital Equipment Corporation Japan, R&D center
Date: Mon, 23 Nov 1992 06:04:38 GMT
Cheats, Cliches, Cartoons, Anime...
Version 1.4. Copyrighted November 21, 1992, by Curtis H. Hoffmann.
Permission is granted to cross-post this file in whole to other
computer networks (in fact, I'd be very happy if someone would crosspost
this to Fido.) This file may be reprinted in a fanzine or newsletter
as long as I'm notified, in exchange for a copy of the issue this
article appears in. This article can not be altered, or reprinted in a
for-profit magazine, without permission.
Added in this version: Missing Bars
The Head Job
The Called Shot
The Big Gun [JJ]
The Five Man Band [JJ]
There are many ways to cut corners in the process of creating
animation. I'm going to try to describe some of them, as I also attempt
to catalog the cliches used in both western and Japanese cartoons. If you
have any comments on this file, feel free to make them. If you have
anything to add to the list, please do so.
Most of the names used here are my own creation, and are not in
common usage anywhere else.
Anime -- Japanese produced and directed paint-on-cel animation. Has
no inherent implications as to quality of the product.
Cartoon -- Encompasses paint-on-cel-based animation from around the
world, but normally is applied only to North American
productions with little story-telling potential that are
aimed at children.
Added changes came from:
Enrique Conty [EC]
Derek Upham [DU]
John Martin Karakash [JMK]
jeffj@yang (ChaOs) [JJ]
Animation Cheats and Cliches
Shooting on 3's:
In film, there are 24 frames per second. For video tape, there are
Really fluid animation is gained by drawing one frame of a
character's movement per frame of film. However, this is only
necessary when a character is moving from left to right (or right to
left,) and the camera is panning along the background artwork. This
prevents a strobing-effect that occurs when the background moves too far
on the screen from one frame to the next.
Normally, the animator can make do with one drawing per 2 frames of
film. This is called "shooting on 2's." Most theatrical films, and
some TV cartoons are shot on 2's, and everything looks fine.
However, you can save money by skipping some work, and shoot 3
frames per drawing. Many TV cartoons are shot on 3's or 4's, which
gives a very jerky feeling to the action. Something like _Hammerman_ is
shot at least on 4's, if not on 8's.
The standard western cheat is to simplify the character design, so
there are fewer lines to draw per frame. This is obvious both in the
body features, and the clothing elements. You can also see this in
Anpan-man, Mary Bell, and Chibi Maruko-chan.
When you have a very detailed image, like the close-up of a person's
face, it takes a lot of time and effort to animate it smoothly.
Instead, you can paint maybe 4 or 8 "extreme poses" and film them as
static images. The next step is to use post-production editing to fade
from one still to the next. Alternatively, a few in-between cels
can be painted that have ghosts of the extremes, which gives the same
effect, but with much less work than if every single frame had been
created from scratch. This may cut the total number from 60 drawings,
to 15, or 8.
The final results may be used to heighten the emotional effect of a
scene, or to simply stretch out the action of a complex drawing.
Usually, you'll see this when a crying girl turns away from the hero, or
when a top sports player dives for the ball during a crucial play.
The Triple Repeat Attack (TRP):
When someone gets hit hard, the camera pans by a single still of the
attack three times, occasionally with little variations in each pan, like
zooming in a bit further for each pass. It is very easy to over-use
this device for even the most trivial of situations. It is very much a
cliche, but it's also a cheat since you may only have one drawing for 10
seconds of film.
Chan-Style, or Super-Deformed Style:
Admittedly, this is a purely Japanese technique that is mostly just a
cliche, and not necessarily a cheat. But, the results are the same --
less work per frame.
Both techniques consist of drawing a normal character as if he were a
5 year-old, with a larger head, smaller body, and chubby limbs. Most of
the details will be lost at the same time. These are done mainly for
slapstick comedy effect.
The Assembly Sequence:
You'll see the Assembly Sequence normally in a kiddie power-suit, or
mecha show. It consists of the character (like Sailor Moon, or Metal
Jack,) calling out something ("Make Up!" or "Jack On!") which will be
followed by stock footage of the character standing around while the
suit or outfit wraps itself around him. By itself, this is no big deal.
Except, that it's the exact same sequence from one episode to the next.
In this way, the animators save themselves about 1 to 3 minutes of
animation per character per episode.
It's both a cheat, and a cliche.
Also an amusing example of your 'suit up' cheat was noticed by me
and my roommate on the Ghostbusters (NOT the Real Ghostbusters BTW). We
calculated that over half the show was suit up/reused cels/commercials.
Which brings me to the cheat most beloved by advertisers, the long-
then-more-commercials cheat! [JMK]
Separated eyes and mouths:
The opposite side of the coin from Simplicity is Shading and Detail.
Here, the animators (usually Japanese,) have added so much detail and
color to the character's face that it's too much work to redraw it in
each frame as the character talks.
So, instead of redrawing the face a lot (which allows you to get a
jaw that moves as the character speaks,) you draw the face on one cel,
and the mouth and eyes on another. (Admittedly, western animators use
this technique for the same reasons, but the faces in their drawings
have much less detail to begin with.)
Gaping Mouth Wounds:
In TV, it's not necessary to get the lip-sync down really tightly
when a character talks, which means that sometimes the mouth moves even
when the character has stopped talking. This saves work, because you
don't have someone tied up with the very time-consuming task of breaking
the dialog down into single frames, and vowel sounds.
The extreme case, though, is when you don't worry about the specific
dialog matching up with the shape of the mouth. Now, you only have 4 or
5 standard mouth positions (open, closed, partially opened, and
yelling,) instead of the normal 7 or 10, and you just jump them around
under the camera roughly in time with the dialog. This is common both in
anime, and western cartoons.
When a character is thinking, or becomes stunned, he'll freeze on the
screen. The only action comes from a camera pan in, or out. The Hold
also occurs when one character stops talking and the other begins. Anyone
not talking simply freezes on the screen. This saves the studio a lot of
time and money, because the alternative is to draw separate frames with
the character's clothes rippling in a breeze, or the character's face
reacting to whatever is being said.
Crowd scenes require a lot of work, and time that the studio can't
afford to spend. Therefore, crowds will be treated as background
artwork. The only element of movement comes from the camera panning
across, and the only signs of life will be the voice actors cheering as
voice-overs. Occasionally, mouths will be painted on separate cels for
one or three audience members to do a little yelling on their own.
This is a classic animation technique all studios use extensively.
The basic idea is to put the character into a repeating action cycle,
and just draw the first few cels necessary for it. The normal example
is a simple walk, which only takes 7 to 12 cels for a sequence that may
last 30 seconds. Disney is famed for its use of more complex cycles in
its early short cartoons.
4-colors VS 256:
Simply by looking at most western TV animation, you can tell that the
animators are saving themselves a lot of effort by eliminating shading,
and reducing the number of colors in the clothing designs. Fewer colors
means less work, fewer costs, and a more boring image. The Japanese will
use more colors and the GMW technique at the same time.
Last Week's Re-Cap:
When you have an episodic adventure series like Dragon Ball, or Dodge
Danpei, you'll get a re-cap of the action from the previous episodes
before the show starts up with the new stuff. This means that the
animators are saving themselves about 3 to 5 minutes of work by
reusing old animation with a voice-over narration.
The Repeat Thingie:
Occasionally, you may notice a character doing one action in one
scene, and later doing the exact same action in an entirely different
scene. This is a case of reusing existing cels with either a different
background, or a different prop (changing a hammer for an ax.) Some of
the really bad American moralistic cartoons from the '60s used this
technique A LOT.
Disney does this occasionally. When the cels are filmed for any
given show or movie, the cels themselves will be either tossed or washed
and reused. But, the pencil drawings will usually be stored for future
works. This way, all that's needed is to xerox the existing artwork, and
change the color scheme for the new scene.
FILMATION seems to use this technique a lot. Compare He-Man, She-Ra,
Tarzan and Star Trek some time. The poses and layouts are almost
exactly the same (the "Close-up-with-half-face-visible", especially). [DU]
Rotoscoping is done by projecting live footage under a sheet of paper to
allow the animator to trace the picture, frame by frame, before modifying
it. The advantage is that the animator doesn't have to figure out how a
character moves through trial and error. The down side is that the
result usually looks pretty cheesy (just look at any Ralph Bakshi
movie.) While the Fleischer Brothers used rotoscoping (and created the
process,) very artfully, it's still obvious when it's employed. Disney
tried using rotoscoping in a number of his films, but the results
weren't to his liking, and the animators just redrew those scenes,
Note: Venus Wars did not have rotoscoping in the motorcycle scenes: that
was an example of optical printing (adding animation over live footage.)
Originally, when a pencil drawing was cleaned up, the ink and paint
department would trace the pencil lines onto the cels via multicolored
inks (which allowed for more subtle shadings, and details,) before the
paints were added. Now, it's easier to xerox the final pencils onto a
cel. The drawback is that the xerox lines look rougher, may have breaks
in them, and will be all in black (removing the element of subtlety.)
A nice counterpoint to this was the work in the GIANT ROBO OVAs. From
what my sources tell me, the final pencils are xeroxed, but then a second
cel is overlayed on the first, and this second cel is hand-painted. The
resulting cel-work is simply amazing. [EC]
This is a cliche used to get a heightened emotional response, while
also filming a static pose. When a character starts an attack, the
background is replaced with streaks of color, or simple racing lines.
This doesn't actually save the animators any work, and adds a little
more work for the camera operator because the backgrounds need to be
changed more often. But, since the background was static to begin with,
and the main character has also become static, the speed lines help liven
things up a bit.
Collars and Talking Heads:
Hanna-Barbera is notorious for this trick. Rather than redrawing the
entire character for each frame that the mouth moves, you give the
character a collar, and then place the head on a different cel
underneath the body cel. The body is usually then kept stationary,
and the head cels are changed in sequence. Although, if the character
does walk and talk at the same time, it's still less work to animate than
This is both a cliche and a cheat. Take a Hold, and just redraw some
white highlights inside the pupils. Why draw an emotional face, if you
don't have to?
The 'No Face':
One cheat that I didn't see mentioned is the 'no face' cheat. Put a
helmet on a guy/gal/thing and you've saved yerself tons of time. Put
him/her/it in a whole suit and voila! minimal use of shading/movement
is required. [JMK]
(Curtis comments: Not exactly true. Bubble Gum Crisis used this
pretty heavily, but it still had a lot of shading on each suit. The
primary savings come from not having to show the character blink or
talk, and there are less details to draw the first time around.)
A number of people have commented on the fact that the sound tech will
steal sound effects from movies like Aliens, and Star Wars, for certain
situations, rather than create an entirely new sound himself. I haven't
noticed this myself, but there's a growing consensus that this happens a
lot. The reasons should be obvious.
This is a common manga technigue. The result is a highly realistic
background image that looks like it was xeroxed before being
photocopied. It provides the illusion of added depth to the manga,
while saving the artist a lot of work.
The Multiple-Character-Single-Gasp Reaction:
I find this to be one of the more annoying time-consuming Japanese
cliches. It's very simple -- something startling will happen, or a
character will get smashed up. Then, the camera will pull in for a
close up of each of the other characters -- one at a time -- as they
gasp or speak the guy's name. This has been happening too often in
Dragon Ball Z. The result is to force a heightened sense of suspense,
and to stretch out a fight scene while doing a small amount of work.
Example -- Piccilo will get punched into the ground. The camera then
cuts to a close-up of #18, who will gasp. Now, cut to #17, who will
gasp. Then, cut to #16 for a gasp. Next, cut to Kiririn to gasp. And
continue down the line until you run out of characters. Repeat this
operation 2 or 4 times per battle per episode.
The Raging Flames/Crashing Surf:
An alternative to Speed Lines -- when a character gets overly
emotional, or "highly charged," the background will be replaced by
roaring flames or surf. This is just an intensity-building device, used
extensively by Rumiko Takahashi.
The Slash Split Screen:
Another cliche, related to the Multi-Character-Single-Gasp Reaction,
the difference being that the MCSGR is sequential, and the S^3 is
more-or-less simultaneous. When the main character is hit, the first
reaction will appear in the top portion of the screen, the second
reaction appears on the bottom, and the remaining reactions will be in
the middle of the screen. _Dodge Danpei_ uses this technique. Bubble
Gum Crisis does the same thing, but usually when the Knight Sabers are
preparing to go into battle and all of them say "roger," or "Knight
Sabers -- Go!"
This is a term coined by Larry Greenfield to describe the cloud of feet
and sweat (sometimes tears) that surrounsd a character when he goes into
panic-mode. There is no longer a relation between the character's feet
and the ground, as the character just slides back and forth on the screen.
Again, the result is also less work per frame.
The Temple Vein:
Especially in manga. When a character gets stressed-out, or angry,
a cross-like outline of a 4-way vein intersection will pop up on their
forehead. Sometimes, this gets carried to extremes, as in the manga
where an identical vein pops up three different places on the back of a
guy's hand. (Real veins don't act like that.)
In the wonderful world of the Japanese language, several words exist
that are nothing more than sound effects (like "niko," for the sound of
a smile.) When you're watching anime played for laughs, a wide-eyed
character blinking in surprise will make a "poit", or "pika" sound
(occurs a lot in Urusei Yatsura, and Kimengumi High School.) And, in
Project A-ko, when C-ko smiles in front of the class, she says "Niko."
A common story device used to hook the viewer's attention. Employed
heavily in Kimagure Orange Road. Basically, something really bad or
really good will happen to the star right at the beginning of the
episode, only to turn out to be a dream.
Not necessarily a cliche or cheat, but a commonly used special effect
in anime. There's a lot of rain in the spring and fall in Japan, so
rain has become an accepted plot device (plus, when bad events happen to
the principle characters, rain will start falling to symbolize their
plight.) To show that the rain is hitting trees, people, or animals, a
light halo will shimmer around the tops, heads, and shoulders. A
separate set or 4 or 5 cels will be used for this, if the characters are
just standing and talking.
The Background Cameo:
One of the most prized anime devices for fans.
Because it takes a long time for an animator to finish a sequence or
background, said animator will add silly things to make their job more
fun. Such as the Star Trek USS Enterprise blueprints in _The Nolandia
Affair_, and the appearance of The Dirty Pair's Kei in a background shot
in the _Fist of the Northstar_ movie. A little of this shows up in _The
Simpsons,_ but is more common in anime movies and OAV's than TV shows.
When a Japanese studio has a medium-range shot of a talking
character, they'll redraw the entire figure even though only the mouth
is moving. This is not an easy operation, because the body has to be
copied and painted without variations, and the cycle cels have to be
registered exactly. So, when a character bounces up and down as they
speak, you know that the registration slipped. Nadia is a featured
Jumper in Nadia: Secret of Blue Water.
This phenomenom is not really a cliche or a cheat, but it is peculiar
Yet another Japanese cliche used instead of animating an actual
emotion. Several series (like Kimengumi High School) have parodied this
cliche, with characters holding buckets to catch someone else's flood.
The Tear Pendulums:
One of the stranger cliches, also a twist on the Tear Flood. When
you get hit in the head, tears well up in your eyes. You may even get a
a little tear running down your cheeks a bit. Well, this teardrop looks
almost like a ball on the end of a string. Take this image 10 steps
further, and you get a white pingpong ball swinging from a white stick
under each eye. This device occurs a LOT in manga, and some silly anime
(most notably, Ranma 1/2.) (It took me a long time to figure out what
these things were.)
In Japan, it's not polite to blow your nose in public -- instead,
you're just supposed to keep sniffing until you have the chance to "do
your business in private." Because of this, colds (the cold-sufferer
will voluntarily wear a face mask to keep from infecting other people in
public,) sneezing on people, and runny noses are commonly used as gags
in manga, and in anime to a lesser extent. The standard joke is to show
an uncultured kid, or a frightned man, as someone with snot running down
his lip (and frequently into his mouth.)
The Nose Bubble:
A related gag to the S-NK, is the simple rendering of someone soundly
asleep, blowing snot bubbles through their nose. This is the visual
clue that tells you that this people is sleeping, and is commonly
accompanied by lip-, or chin-, drool.
The Sweat Drop:
You'll also see this in manga when a character gets nervous,
apprehensive, or scared. A large teardrop will appear somewhere on the
character (many times, on the back of the head.) Occasionally, the
sweat drop will be placed on a separate cel, and slid down the
character's face (the face is in a Hold.) It's easier than animating
the face for those emotions.
The Stunned Fall-Over:
One more Japanese cliche. When someone says something stupid or
unexpected, everyone else will fall flat on their face or back. In many
cases, one character will fall over, and then reappear with The Bandage
on their forehead.
The Writhing Face:
To show intense emotion (usually frustration or anger,) the animator
will draw the face in two extreme poses (with maybe one in-between pose
for filler) with the teeth grinding and eyes opening or closing. These
few cels are alternated under the camera to give the impression of the
desired emotion, but the actual effect is to make the character's eyes
and mouth writhe around on his face. Happens extensively in Dragon
Super Deformed Ugly:
This seems to be the counter-point to the "super-deformed' style,
where the character is made to look more cute. In SDU, the eyes get
deformed, the mouth contorts in a "jaw on the ground, while slurping a
lemon" grin, and shade lines will appear around the eyes, and bridge of
the nose (either the character is blushing, suffering from burning eyes,
or has smelled something REAL BAD,) and there will be an over-all
simplifying of features. Although a lesser form of this is used heavily
in Yawara, the true SDU appears in college "bad boys and girls" manga.
One of the best cliches, you'll get this when one character is acting
uppity, and the other "dis's" him. One finger pulls down the lower lid
of one eye, the tongue is stuck out, and the character says "behhhhh".
Very common in anime and manga.
Again, when a character gets uppity, another one will smash him in
the head with a fist, a bat, book, or shoe. This normally looks pretty
painful, but has no lasting effects. Characters may even get into
full-blown brawls, and be covered in lumps from head to toe, but will
completely recover in the next panel or frame.
When someone gets bopped in a Fake Fight, they will immediately
receive a bandage in the next frame. Which will disappear as soon as
the joke is over.
The Head Job:
Another bizarre visual device. When an animal/beastperson gets very
excited/angry, it will attack you. Normally, on the arms, hands, feet,
or legs, if this is a western story. In anime and manga, this beast
will attach itself to the top back part of your head, and will hang
there for the length of the scene. Examples of this can be found in
_Dragon Half_, _Ushio and Tori_, and _Dragon Ball_. Sometimes, the
person's entire head will be engulfed. Normally, like Fake Fighting,
the beast will not leave a permanent mark on you (In Dragon Ball, a
ghoul does this to Kuririn during battle, leaving a circle of blood
fountains on Kuririn's scalp, and requiring the use of bandages during
several episodes before Kuririn can recover.)
The Called Shot:
Of all of the anime cliches, the Called Shot has to be the most
disliked, and embarrassing, to the new fans. Basically, the character
will strike a pose, or wield a certain weapon, and call out the name of
whatever attack he or she will now use. "Dragon Punch!" "Flaming Iris
Sword!" or "Buster Shield!"
One of the main reasons this action is employed so heavily in anime
and manga is simply that the audience has no other way of knowing what
the hell the character is doing, otherwise. Further, there is something
of a history behind this action -- including Kamen Rider and Ultra Man
-- and that is the fact that so many martial arts techniques have such
names. "Round House Kick," "Side Snap," "Inside Leg Throw," and "Tiger
Claw." And, an observer unfamiliar with a particular martial arts
school, would be completely clueless when one technique is used, or
To western audiences, this is merely a silly thing -- "Why don't these
guys just trash each other and get it over with? Who cares what the
technique is called? I just wanna watch these bozos kick each other's
A variant of this is used in Hokuto no Ken, where the attack is made,
and then the name of the technique is emblazoned on the screen over a
still painting of the hero.
The Big Gun:
Doesn't have to be a gun, but it's a big "mega-nuke" attack that
usually takes out anyone it's aimed at. Often has incredible special
effects. A downside of this is that they tend to be overused. (Like in
Voltron - every episode, without fail...) Examples: "Form Blazing
Sword!" from Voltron, the Wave Motion Cannon from Star Blazers, the
SDF-1 Main Gun from Macross, Captain Planet himself from Captain Planet
and the Planeteers, and what we like to call the "Mandala attack" from
This is a rather interesting artistic technique where a character is
behind a fence, or in a prison, and the bars or chain links that would
normally hide the face simply are not drawn in. Shows up in various
NOTE: There are many ways a studio can err in its work -- skipping a
frame or two of motion, flipping the frames so that a couple are out of
sequence, using the wrong colors on one or two cels, screwing up cel
registration, and so on. The following error(s) revolve around the
specific skills (or lack thereof) used in animating a scene or
character, that can be seen consistently in the productions of one or
The Flat Mouth:
Kissing, eating, blowing whistles, and anything else that requires
using the mouth. When you watch anime, you'll notice that the
characters' mouths just lie flat on the cel, without deforming properly
to adaption to the actions they are taking. It's most obvious when a
character is eating -- the food comes up to the mouth, the lips surround
a bit of the food, the food just disappears, and the character makes
chewing motions. It's the surest sign that you're watching a cartoon,
and is a consistent flaw even in the most well-made productions.
Western cartoons have a similar flaw, but generally avoid the problem
NOTE: These are cliches that appear in other forms of entertainment and
storytelling, and aren't peculiar only to animation.
As everyone knows, when a huge, strong guy is about to beat the crap
out of a victim, he will crack his knuckles as a part of flexing his
hands. This has been turned into an anime cliche, and extended to the
point where REALLY vicious guys crack the muscles and joints in their
neck. Real people can not do this. Do not try this at home on your
Standard cliche in anime, used to fill in story details that the
audience doesn't already know, but which will immediately justify the
character's next actions. A very common plot device used in episodic
Ripping the Disguise:
A previously unknown character is doing all sorts of amazing feats.
At an appropriately dramatic scene, the character grabs at his/her
shoulder and PULLS. Cloth flies in front of the camera, and when it
settles down we see one of the regular characters in his/her usual garb.
The previous outfit/physical features were a disguise. [EC]
This is used with variations in all western forms of entertainment.
One of the worst developments to come out of the western world. To
make a show appeal to small children, an otherwise unnecessary character
will be added to the line-up. This character will be cute, appealing,
and utterly loathsome to adults. Scrappy-Doo is an excellent example of
this. If carried to extremes, the entire cast will be thus
metamorphised, as in The Muppet Babies, and the new version of Tom and
Can you say "Slimer and the Ghostbusters"?
What's interesting is that Scooby-Doo may be an example of this as
well. I'd read a long time back (can't remember the source, now) that
the Scooby-Doo concept had originated in Great Britan. It was then a
series with the Mods (Fred and Daphne) versus the Beatniks (Shaggy and
Velma) racing to solve various mysterys; Scooby was a minor character.
When they took the concept to the U.S., they cutified it. [DU]
Both a plot device, and a cheat. The plot element of a NVO is
obvious -- to fill in details for the audience, rather than to make
those details a part of the story leading up to that point. The cheat
comes in because the action on the screen will turn into a Hold with a
camera pan or pull out. In animation, the work is shifted from the
animators to the cameraman and the narrator.
Too Many Commercials:
Refer to the note by JMK at the end of the Assembly Sequence entry.
The Five Man Band:
(This is an anime cliche that a friend of mine calls "5 character theory".
As far as I know, the first instance of this is in Science Ninja Team
Gatchaman, aka Battle of the Planets. Since then, it's appeared in shows
like Voltron, Mospeada aka Robotech III, several live action shows, and
even movies, like Star Wars. The five character types are:) [JJ]
Upstanding, idealistic, handsome. Usually the protagonist of the
show, although people tend to think that The Other Guy is far cooler.
Examples include Luke Skywalker, Fred from Scooby-Doo, and Scott
Bernard in Robotech III.
The Big Guy:
Big, and strong. Sometimes dumb, but usually turns out to be very
friendly. Examples: Chewbacca, Lunk from Robotech III, Ryooma from
The Other Guy:
Usually cool and disreputable. If someone has facial hair, it's
probably him. Quite often the most effective person on the team.
Lancer from Robotech III and Han Solo are classic Other Guys.
The token female on the team. Sometimes she knows what she's doing,
but not always. Princess Leia, the princess from Voltron, Daphne from
Scooby-Doo. Sometimes, The Chick is an androgynous or homosexual male,
like Reiga from Shurato.
Usually annoying to anyone who has entered puberty (and thus discovered
The Chick) Frequently incompetent. The 'droids from Star Wars,
Cheop (sp?) from Battle of the Planets, Pidge from Voltron, the
Copper Kid from Silverhawks, and Scooby-Doo from his own show.
This is an optional archetype. Often appears to guide the characters,
provide advice, or train them. The classic example is Obi-Wan Kenobi.
Also, Dungeonmaster from Dungeons & Dragons, Stargazer from
Silverhawks, the King from Voltron, Vishnu from Shurato, Saori from
St. Seiya. [JJ]
If there are any other cheats or cliches, I haven't noticed them yet.
I'll add them to the list if someone else mentions them to me.
-- Curtis H. Hoffmann
Nov. 21, 1992