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CULTS, SECTS AND DEVIANT MOVEMENTS OVERVIEW AND HISTORICAL BACKDROP There is a vast variety of different cults, sects and deviant move- ments in the United States today. One estimate numbers the active cults at between five and six hundred, with two thousand potential movements represented. Keeping track of individual deviant movements, even in one's own locality, is a time consuming task, however, under- standing some common traits of these movements will assist us in recognizing them for what they are. Most religious and political movements have a CHARISMATIC FIGURE at the head. This charismatic figure embodies the authority of the movement. The figure generally claims an extraordinary or divine experience which sets him apart from others or claims some type of special political ideology which is unique in the time and area in which it emerges. The charismatic authority figure claiming a divine revelation will generally be at the head of a religious cult or sect. The figure claiming special political ideology will generally be at the head of a political movement. Political and religious distinc- tions are often blurred and combined so various movements contain some elements of religion as well as politics; these are called identity church movements. For the purpose of understanding the pure forms, the following information will divide the movements into religious versus political. Any movement-whether or positive or negative in nature-generally occurs during a period of "anomie." The Greek word "nomos" means "something which gives structure and meaning." Something which is "anomic" takes away or reduces structure. The noun "anomie" describes a time or condition where structure and meaning, the orderly flow of civiliza- tion, is being threatened or attacked by counter-culture influences within the society. During anomie societal institutions (such as home, family, church, education, government, the military, law, and justice) undergo severe attacks and a dissolution of public confi- dence. In the United States a great anomic tendency surged during the sixties and seventies. The Viet Name War years and Watergate gave tremendous impetuous to the feeling of anomie in individuals and cultural groups. In some cases anomic feelings are intentionally fostered to hasten the dissolution of stability. Individuals can undergo temporary anomic periods in their own lives. During these periods the individuals are more susceptible to the influences of counter-cultural or deviant movements. A freshman in college or a new recruit in the military... both of whom find them- selves isolated in strange surroundings without their normal peer and group support... are in a position where they have to search for stability. Farmers who just had their family farms repossessed and adults having been through a recent divorce experience periods of anomie. If a deviant group takes precedence in a person's life during an anomic period it may capture that person's loyalty, thought pat- 1 terns, and life behaviors for the rest of his life, or that group's influence may decline in proportion with the level of anomie in the person's life. Mental instability aggravates the tendency of persons to fall under cult/deviant influence during anomic periods. In a religious context the authority which emanates from the charis- matic authority figure translates into a "mission for God". Charis- matic figures arise during periods of anomie. They are agents of change. In a political context (such as the political philosophies of Marx, Lenin, and Mao), change occurs by following political ideologues instead of divine mandate. These ideologues often embrace the philos- ophy that "the end justifies the means", that there is no higher mission than the political need, and this mission transcends normal moral law and values. This transcendency opens the door for political ideologies to attract fanatics and extremists. Their activities and beliefs often violate the human and civil rights of others, particu- larly "non-believers" or nom-members of their group. (This profile applies to every period of major change in the history of the world whether the change was for good or bad.) GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTS Cults should be distinguished from other groups such as sects and religions. A cult is usually a small starting place for a deviant movement. As the "cult" philosophy gains momentum and adherents and as society becomes accustomed to it, the cult may change into a "sect" which is a bit more well-established. Sects show more stability and societal acceptance than do cults. As a sect grows and wins some popular acceptance and support it may one day be accepted by society asa religion. The progression from cult to sect to religion usually is a process which occurs over a period of many years. Cults usually have core groups of fundamentalists, whether in the political, religious, or religio-political context. They are the ones who hold the "pure vision" of where the cult should go. Mixtures of philosophy and ideology brought in by new converts to the cult tend to dilute the pure vision. The dilution of the pure vision often makes the cult more acceptable to society because more of society's values are being represented in the cult. Stress occurring between fundamen- talist and liberal factions may cause sub-groups to splinter off. When a "sect" passes to "religion" status a combination of things has occurred. First, the adherents to the religion normally portray few traits which are objectionable to society. Society on the other hand, has learned to "live and let live" and accepts the religion's beliefs as "routine." 2 Various cultic groups tend to have many factors in common, especially in the progression of movement of uninitiated persons toward and into cult involvement. Cults attract followers from general society. The followers begin to take on certain characteristics of the cult. The following factors are pertinent to the identification of a group as a cult: 1. Voluntary, achieved membership: New adherents must pass some sort of test, possibly a rite or ritual, in order to achieve member- ship. Membership is sought after and does not occur accidentally or incidental to some other societal activity. 2. Members assume an elitist self-image: This self-image is spawned and fostered by the organization of the cult. Certain "faith maintenance mechanisms" are built into cult membership. These often take the form of a series of rituals, pledges, oaths or tests of worthiness. There are also "boundary maintenance mecha- nisms" which tend to separate the cult member from the rest of society, from non-members, from family, and from normal peer group associations. Cult members develop an "us versus them" mentality. 3. Exclusivism: Members believe that they are the "only ones with the truth" and (in some manner) will be the only ones who will be among the "saved remnant" when some catastrophic event occurs. Actually, normal logical truth is irrelevant in the cult context. Some religious cults use "heavenly deception" for recruiting and initiating new members deeper into the cult mechanism. They also use the process of "operative exclusivism" which allows only those who need to know to become aware of certain privileged information as they progress into the cult. There are usually numerous levels of information that are shared only with people who have proven their loyalty and worth to the cult organization and therefore have progressed upward in the organization. 4. Hostility: By the very nature of cult beliefs (which separate the members from society and indoctrinate them into the belief that cult members only possess the truth) hostility towards society and its institutions is generated. This hostility feeds on individu- al's hostile tendencies which were brought into the group. On the other hand, society is often prejudiced against the cult... often this is based on fear, superstition or non-existent "facts". Per- ceived hostility from society does nothing more than fuel the hostility of the cult member. (This is a key principle to understand when contacting cult members in an effort to defuse a situation or gain rapport with a cult member. Face-to-face confrontation will generally tend to reduce avenues of communica- tion. 5. Acetism: Members often display personal willingness to sacrifice self-comfort, finances and personal efforts for "the cause." Cults frequently demand acetism from their members. Cults can generate a great deal of financial support as they convince members to turn 3 over their personal wealth and possessions to the group for the "common good." 6. Priesthood of All Believers: This term, in a religious context means that all those initiated into the cult membership share equal, automatic priesthood and therefore share the authority of the cult. There are usually various levels of priesthood, but adherents develop tremendous peer support and identification through the "priesthood of all believers" phenomenon. Believers are convinced they are very close to their god(s), sometimes in contact with god(s) and sometimes gods themselves. In a political context the "priesthood of all believers" phenome- non leads to increasingly elitist feelings. The perception is that since one is part of the select few he is somehow untouchable by normal societal standards, morality, laws, and ethics. He is therefore free to make whatever changes necessary or to take whatever actions seem appropriate at the time under the "end-jus- tifies-the-means" philosophy. This frequently manifests itself in extremism and terrorism. 7. Increasing Control Mechanisms: The deeper a member proceeds into cult involvement, the wider the gap will become between that person and his origins in society. Control mechanisms are step-by- step levels of control which increasingly attack the member's independent thought and freedom of action. Often control mecha- nisms are "mind control" and "brainwashing" tactics. They include physical isolation, deprivation of food, sleep, family and peer support coupled with intensely repetitive indoctrination involving little opportunity for questions or evaluation on a rational scale. Cults have the potential to control every aspect of an individual's life. The control mechanisms are powerful enough to completely reprogram the thinking and activities of the members to coincide with the authoritarian philosophy of the charismatic leader of the cult group. A three part written account details the process whereby an intelligent, normally well-adjusted college student, the daughter of a Baptist minister, was enticed into the Unification Church. In a period of three days she was convinced that the philosophy of the group was "the only truth." This preceeded months of involve- ment where the girl became increasingly subject to the mind control processes of the group. Finally, in desparation, (all other attempts at reason having failed) the family enlisted the aid of a professional deprogrammer," kidnapped" the daughter and talked her out of the mind control mechanism. As a cult grows and survives it develops ritualized behaviors. The charismatic figure may start to share his authority with other (trusted) members. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY WHO IS IN POWER IN A CULT GROUP. ALL POWER FLOWS FROM HIM. 4 The isolation or encapsulation of a cult or sect group which includes a leader figure is a very dangerous situation. (Examples such as the Peoples Temple led by Jim Jones in Guyana and the CSA on a 150 acre tract of land in the south, had tragic results.) The physical isolation of a group by fences, terrain or controlled movements, places the members completely under the power of the charismatic figure. Combined with misguided philosophy and an arsenal of weapons, total control of suggestible people has explosive potential. Conclaves of such isolationist sects are found in the South, Northwest and West where open terrain allows them to flourish and survive with little interference. 8. Elimination of Critical Recourse: Members of cult groups seldom have "critical resource". This is the avenue which members of any movement are either given or denied. When given it allows the members to question those in authority through established channels and tends to filter out aberrant behavior within an organized, legitimate group or denomination. Established reli- gions have such things as synods, councils, bishops, elders, deacons, etc., or some parallel political group which handle complaints and questions from members about doctrines and philos- ophies. Critical recourse seldom entails negative sanctions upon the person exercising it in legitimate groups. Members of deviant groups are rarely allowed critical recourse. They are carefully restricted from the ability to criticize or question anyone in authority. Open criticism often results in painful sanctions against (or even the death of) the member. It should be noted that the power of cult groups comes from the members level of conviction and dedication, and authoritarian control of the cult over members. Many cultic and sectarian groups are multinational, multimillion dollar corporations. They are managed by competent businessmen who adhere to the beliefs of the group. A recent report shows that one such group, the Unification Church, grosses between 1 and 1.5 million dollars daily from street sales and begging by its members. The Way International, not only generates revenue by the gifts and donations of its members, but also charges fees for training courses, sells souvenir articles and printed material. It even issues savings bonds in the name of the organization. The headquarters building of The Way International is a five-million-dollar-plus structure. The Way has extensive property and equipment holdings. The U.S.A. has experienced a great upsurgence of cult and sect activ- ities in the two-plus decades since 1960. As many as 25 million people in the United States are directly affected by cult and sect influence. Historically, the law enforcement community and military are the least prepared to deal with cult and sect influences. This ability is further diminished as deviant groups "hide" behind the protection of the U.S. Constitution for legitimate religions. 5 Many cult/sect groups have well-trained, disciplined and organized agents working to infiltrate the police and the military. These are not fly-by-night operations, but well-financed thrusts. There are two basic structures seen in cults and sects. The first is the Authoritarian model. This can generally be envisioned as a pyramid structure with the charismatic structure at the peak. All authority flows downward from the charismatic figure. The authority flow may include some trusted lieutenants who have earned the confi- dence of the leader. The pyramid is made up of various levels with the lowest (entry level), or worker level, on the bottom. There is high encapsulation of these levels. Elitism increases as members proceed up the pyramid structure and information is strictly con- trolled on a "need to know" basis. Members seldom know the true story of what's going on above them, but must operate on what they are told with little or no chance of questioning or criticism. (illustration not reproduced) AUTHORITARIAN STRUCTURE The second structure can be called a Nonauthoritarian model. This can be visualized as a wagon wheel with a hub, spokes, and peripheral groups. Although there is a central headquarters, the individual local groups generally have a degree of autonomy not experienced in the Authoritarian model. The local groups may set up on an author- itarian or pyramidal basis or may be more "democratic" in nature. As members progress through the hierarchy of the local structure they may earn the right to work in the headquarters group. (illustration not reproduced) 6 NON-AUTHORITARIAN STRUCTURE PERSONALITY PROFILE FOR THOSE PRONE TO CULT INVOLVEMENT There are certain dependent personality types which are particularly susceptible to the lure of cult involvement. Some cults target specific age ranges toward which their indoctrination efforts are focused. It is not uncommon for the 18 to 26 year old group to be targeted by groups because during this time the individuals' minds are often still in a questioning mode. Life's values have not been totally solid- ified. They are still eager to try new things, to be accepted by peers and to seek thrills. They are also often displaced from their support structure and homes because of searches for jobs, enlistment in the military, or attendance at college. Of the members of cults who have been studied, 80% display dependent personality types. Some key indicators of a dependent personality are: 1. Intelligence 2. Low self esteem 3. Low achievement 4. The feeling of not being lovable 5. Feeling of isolation 6. Problems dealing with stress 7. Problems in social/sexual interaction A youth displaying these traits, (whether they are temporary in nature because of some change in his/her environment, due to stress, or are indicators of the person's true psychological makeup) can be described as possessing a "classic addict mentality." He or she is a potential addict just waiting for an addiction to come along. Too commonly addiction comes in the form of alcohol and drug abuse. However, many other opportunities for unhealthy addiction are available, including membership and participation in negative deviant groups. Chemical drug and alcohol abuse is sometimes used as an organized recruiting approach by deviant groups who take advantage of the addictive behav- iors in potential "converts." People with addictive mentalities are feeling emotional pain because of their unsuccessful relationships and feelings of inadequacy as they try to adjust to their environment. Addiction (to substances or peer groups) is an effort to dull their personal pain, if even for a short period of time and to forget for a moment the anxieties and stress which haunt them. Participation in an authoritarian movement or other deviant group is an addictive process. The longer one is involved, the greater the control exercised by the group over the "addict." 7 Fifteen percent of cult members studied are personality types who are normally well adjusted, but for some reason are undergoing a temporary (anomic/addictive mentality) susceptibility due to stress or change in their lives. These people could be classified as "situational cult- ists", not "career cultists," although deep involvement in a cult, even for a short period of time, may have long-ranging effects. The farm crisis has placed many Americans in a situation of temporary susceptibility to cult and deviant movement groups. Normally stable, mature adults have seen their life structures shattered. They are angry, hurt and in pain. They are open to anyone who says that they can aid in relieving that pain. Others who may be situationally susceptible are prisoners, service men (especially new enlistees), the handicapped, recent divorcees looking for peace, transients, runaways, alienated idealists, long term unemployed, foreign nationals who are living in a new country and youth without a purpose, i.e., especially college students who really don't know why they are there or what they are working toward as a career. College campuses are very fertile ground for cult and deviate movement recruiting efforts. Junior and Senior high schools also provide a ready source of potential converts as youths experience teenage rebelliousness, the open availability of many destructive influences, almost unlimited freedom, and weakening of the family structure. Some examples of Authoritarian groups are The Way International, which includes at least 150,000 members internationally. Its mission is to establish a "theocracy" as an alternative to our present democratic system of government. This is intended to occur through the agency of a 3.5 million person army by 1995. The Way International is probably the most aggressive and successful cult group in the United States today. It embodies the greatest danger for our present system of government. The Unification Church (The Moonies) believe that Reverend Sun Myung Moon is Jesus Christ personified. The Moonies combine religious and political approaches but Moon's aims seem to be primarily political. He desires to assume control of the government of the United States and to enhance and support the government of the Republic of Korea. The Unification Church utilizes intense mind control of initiates and all its members. Some Nonauthoritarian movements include the Church of Scientology with headquarters in Los Angeles and England. Scientology targets young adults, generally not less than 25 years of age, and utilizes inten- sive psychological stripping techniques by way of "auditors" using lie detector machines. Once adherents have obtained a "clear" (free from "sin") status, they believe themselves to be "gods" who then can participate in the co-creation of the world. This godhood status often brings them into conflict with normal societal institutions, such as the police. The Church of Scientology expends much effort 8 infiltrating the law enforcement community and to gaining access to police files. The Ananda Marga is a group which started in India in the sixties. Its members believe that only they are qualified to exercise effective control of the world. They believe that they belong in control of the universe. One disturbing tenet of the group is that they believe that they are the only group in the world which should have control of nuclear weapons. Their mission is to take the nuclear weapons from those who have them now. The group is primarily urban in nature, but has major training center, one near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. There are hundreds of other movements, cults, sects and religions which have less-than-positive motives in comparison to the orderly structure of the government of the United States and other nations. Many groups do not fall within pure Authoritarian or Nonauthoritarian definitions, but embody a combination of structures much the same as the infinite variations in philosophy between the pure forms of religion and pure political movements. The flaw in the cult-sect phenomenon is that any adherent with sufficient charisma, who happens to disagree with the prevailing cult authorities can splinter off and start his own group according to his own "divine inspiration." This creates a great deal of confusion when trying to track groups through their establishment and growth process. Often, names of the groups are changed as well as names of members. However, becoming familiar with the major characteristics outlined here will allow the reader to at least: 1. recognize a movement for what it is, 2. group it into a general category. A great deal of additional information is available about specific groups which exist and operate in this area. (This material is compiled from notes and materials presented at the I.P.T.M. Cults, Sects, and Deviant Movements Seminar, held in Jacksonville, Florida, on March 5, 6, 1986. Compiled by Lt. Larry M. Jones, Boise Police Department) 9 PAGANISM Thousands of years ago when people started to settle down and become agrarian rather than nomadic they were faced with new problems of survival related to the nature and environment around them. Paganism was man's first attempt at technology, that is, to get control of his environment. It was also primitive religion and science. In paganism certain people (shamans, witch doctors, medicine men) were selected to be responsible for this technology. Often they were picked because of some unique characteristic, such as, blindness, albinism or epilepsy. The shamans gave human characteristics to natural things, that is, the "anthropomorphized" elements of their environment. They gave natural forces human names (American Indians anthropomorphized nature as Manitou.) After naming the environmental element, the shaman would then "communicate" by various means with it. Of course, this communication was ineffective and open to tremendous discretionary interpretation by the shaman. His personal will, feelings and ego were often personified by what the "gods desired". When the shaman's efforts proved unsuccessful (therefore putting his esteem on the line) the "gods" often "required" gifts or sacrifices. These quickly became institutionalized and expected. Many current tribal cultures still practice this type of religion and communication with natural spirits and forces. Present day religions include out-of-body travel, spirit guides in the form of animals (familiars), ritual gifts and sacrifices in their observances and rituals. During the middle ages when Christianity encountered paganism, much confusion resulted. There was a blending of Christian and pagan beliefs as compromise was used in an effort to keep peace and encourage societal acceptance. (The Druids in Ireland were driven out and their beliefs officially replaced with Christianity although many Druidic beliefs were merely driven underground and were practiced secretly. The term bog means "evil god(s)". In modern usage this has become "the boogie man".) Many ancient traditions of paganism have survived to the present day. Greek, Roman and Egyptian worship, religion and philosophies can easily be identified in modern American society. Some groups have absorbed and socialized their traditions and others practice them in more or less pure forms. There is a difference between natural religions, (i.e. the worship of environmental forces anthropomorphized into human or spiritual personalities) and those religions which derive from some type of "divine revelation." GODDESS WORSHIP: Paganism centers around goddess worship or the worship of the "earth mother" or the "huntress". The moon is generally seen to be the goddess symbol. The most common form of goddess worship is wiccan (masculine noun). The feminine form of this word is wicce and the performance of wicce beliefs is called wicce-craft or witch craft. Wiccan is a religion within which are found denominations and orders. 1 Some of these include Gardnerian magic, Crowlian magic, Druidismm and Neodruidism, and Shamanism. Historically, those practicing wiccan religions have been stigmatized, ostracized, persecuted and killed. Many innocent people, because of the power of fear and superstition especially prevalent in more primitive societies, have been labeled as witches or pagans and summarily punished, even though they had little or no involvement in actual witchcraft. Other true witches escaped notice as they effectively blended into society. True paganism is often confused with the Hollywood concept of satanism. Paganism often includes "circle magic", where the goddess or some demonic spirit is summoned by the witch. The purpose of pagan rituals is to call forth evil spirit(s) or some of the dead when the doors between the world of the living and the dead aren't normally opened. Pagans believe that the doors to the "other world" are open on April 30th and October 31st each year. These dates signify high ritual holidays for practicing paganists. When the doors are not normally open they believe they can be forced open by ritual means. Some hallmarks of the ritual ceremonies include a circle which is inscribed on the ground or floor of the meeting place which is large enough to contain the worshipping group and the necessary artifacts for the ritual. Sometimes the circle is scratched with a ritual sword; other times it is made from salt or colored sand. The purpose of the ritual circle is to protect the worshippers from those evil spirits which are to be summoned. The spirits that they attempt to contact are not seen to be friendly and if not kept in strict control will destroy those summoning them. The ritual area is often surrounded by signs or symbols placed on the walls on the four sides of the room (if the ritual site is inside) or placed in various places around the site if it is outside. Invisible spiritual "towers" are established on the North, East, South and West parts of the ritual circle by ritual means. Inside the ritual circle are generally found the following items: an altar, which is some sort of consecrated stone. The altar will never willingly be left behind. The keeper of the ritual is required to protect the altar and make sure that it is secured after the ceremony. Generally the altar has food, a sword, bread, wine in a chalice and other articles of ritual signifi- cance placed on it. One or more fire sites will be found inside the ritual circle. One fire site is used for each goddess or spirit to be called forth. The fire is a tribute to them. Often ritual offerings such as animal sacrifices, corn or other grain are thrown into the fire for the edification of that spirit. Candles of significant colors are used in these ceremonies. Black candles signify death, red candles carry a sexual connotation, lavendar candles are used for conjuring spirits, white and green candles show friendship. The same colors may appear in the form of threads or other ritual devices consistent with the purpose of the ceremony. People attending such ceremonies are generally clad either in black robes with covered faces or "sky clad" (which means that they are completely nude.) The symbolism of some of the ritual items used in 2 paganism is very interesting and informative. The chalice which holds the wine represents the female sexual organ; the dagger (usually at least nine inches long) represents the male sexual organ. Some variations to the single circle ritual set-up may be seen depend- ing on the nature of the intent of the ritual. Sometimes one, two or three circles are established next to each other. The priest or priestess would stand in one and require the summoned demon to appear in another,etc. The protective sealing of the ritual areas is abso- lutely vital to the safety of the participants from the attacks of the demonic spirits which they call forth. They believe that an accidental or unintentional break in the ritual circle will allow the howling hoards of hell to enter the ritual area uncontrolled. Likewise, rituals must be flawlessly performed to be "safe", successful, and effective. Generally speaking the group of people gathering to complete paganism rituals can be labeled as a coven. Covens meet on a regular basis according to a complex calendar system very closely related to earth cycles, moon phases, astrology and other ancient tradition. People involved in the homosexual lifestyle are often comfortable with paganism because of the worship of a goddess-mother figure. Homosexual pagans often work in witchcraft stores and in places where they have access to children. They learn magic, become involved in covens and also make many homosexual contacts in the process. In the pure form, paganists do not use the terms "demon" or "satan". However, Alister Crowley, a proponent of paganism of the "Golden Dawn" tradition who died in 1947, combined some elements of both the satanism and paganism traditions. He authored a very sinister type of paganism which usually entails extremely illegal acts. Crowley's book, "Magick" identifies him as "666-the Beast". He formalized some paganism tradi- tions under the name of Ordi Templi Orientis or O.T.O., which means the Order of the Oriental Temple. O.T.O. has thirteen degrees of rites. Instead of being called covens, the groups were organized into "lodg- es." The highest two degrees involve homosexuality and ritual sacrific- es. The O.T.O. is a select and secretive group with only a small number of people actively involved. They are likely to commit ritual molesta- tions of children or adults, dismemberments and murder. Crowley himself was an opium addict. Drug use is very prevalent among this group of people. There is often confusion when talking about different forms of magic. Paganists make a distinction between "black magic" and "white magic" in that black magic is used for bad purposes (summoning up demons to do evil works) whereas white magic is used to do good. This is merely a confusion of definitions in that all "magic" stems from the same source regardless of the alleged object of the magical rite. However, in the pagan tradition any coven can perform either "black" or "white" magic depending on the purpose or object desired. 3 Recruitment into pagan covens or witchcraft covens is generally accom- plished through personal association and word of mouth. In recent years recruitment has taken on many of the hallmarks of a major adver- tising campaign. Evidences of the societal acceptance of witchcraft and personal involvement in the witchcraft is epidemic in television, movies, printed literature, etc. All this combines to erode society's historical abhorrence of witchcraft and guarantee its eventual accep- tance by the public. Whereas witches used to be burned at the stake, now they have syndicated columns, make T.V. commercials and star on talk shows! The Society for Creative Anarchism or S.C.A. sponsors periodic "Ren- aissance Fairs" which present the milder and attactive aspects of wicce-craft to the public. These fairs are used to recruit people for local covens. (The Chapter House book store at 8th and Idaho in Boise has an extensive section devoted to mind science and goddess worship type literature. A short visit can be very enlightening!) Paganism uses many types of talismans or symbols which are believed to possess magical traits. Talismans are believed to be power devices. They are sacred objects, active symbols. Amulets are worn for the protection of the wearer. Common symbols are five pointed stars called pentagrams, which have the single point upward. A pentagram in a circle is called a closed pentagram. The satan symbol is a five pointed star with the single point downward, often called the "goat's head star." Other symbols include representations of specific goddess- es, deities, or spirits as well as astrological signs. Alphabets of ancient writings are often used in incantations and communications. These can be very illuminating when observed in conjunction with rituals, sacrifices, suicides, crime scenes, etc. Many offshoots and different traditions exist which embody the basic philosophies of paganism. "Odinism" is an ancient Nordic form of religious magic or paganism. Many of its beliefs were adopted by the Nazis S.S. Odinism worships the god Thor and female deity Freya. Runic writing is common and now is seen in communication between members of right wing radical, cults, and other deviant groups. Paganism stresses the attention to the body's normal cycles (especially female cycles), fertility and control of these things through the agencies of rituals and summoned supernatural forces. As such, pagan- ism is very attractive to those who focus on the flesh or who desire to exercise extraordinary control over their environment or other people. Paganism appeals to the human ego, the desire for mastery, ascendency, and power. POWER IS REALLY THE NAME OF THE GAME. Much of so-called satan worship engaged in by teens today is actually a combination of paganism, satanism, Hollywood hype and the influence of their personal lusts and desires. Fantasy role-playing fits right into the paganist philosophy by allowing individuals to act out personal fantasies for mastery and control over others. Role-playing games are often related to violent Medieval and other ancient traditions which 4 are totally out of place in modern society. There is much emphasis on weapons, attack, and assassination. Role playing games focus on today's youth through intense media campaigns, easily available games and accessories (including deadly weapons), through stores and mail order catalogues. Palladium Publishers (and others) make books available to anyone who has the price, which explain in great detail the methods of assassina- tion used by the Thugees, the Ninja and the Society of Assassins. Palladium's books Weapons and Assassins and Contemporary Weapons are published ostensibly to augment certain role playing games. They explain in detail which weapon to use to kill another human being and how to make poison and other agents of death "from scratch." These books are available through game, book and hobby stores. (As an aside to paganism the role playing game phenomenon has been contributed to the death of at least 55 young people in this nation. 20/20 recently did a segment on role playing games which should be available from the network by video tape. We must determine for ourselves what degree of personal investment our young people have made in role playing games, in paganism, and in satanic worship just to be "someone special".) 5 SATANISM Satanism, as with other traditions, has its pure form as well as its diluted or combined forms. The common thread stems from the worship of satan who is the Biblical and historical antithesis of Jesus Christ, the Christian Messiah. A helpful perspective in evaluating the effects and methodology of satanism is to compare it with Christianity and to visualize an exact opposite from Christian teachings and Biblical principles. Since satan is the antithesis of God, then what he does and how he does it will be destructive to God's law and Godly (good behaviors. NOTE: TO MANY OF US SATANISM, PAGANISM, AND THE OCCULT SEEM TO BE UNREAL MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERACTIVE HOLLYWOOD IMAGINATIONS. IT IS NOT NECESSARY FOR YOU TO BELIEVE IN SATAN AS LONG AS THERE ARE THOSE IN SOCIETY WHO DO BELIEVE IT AND WORSHIP SATAN AND CONTROL THEIR PERSONAL ACTIVITIES ACCORDINGLY. Satanism generally does not include the intense ritualization seen in pure paganism. Satanists less often construct ritual circles to ward off demons and evil spirits because they don't care. Their desire is to have close intercourse with satan and his demons. Satanism comes from the root word "sata" an adjective which means "evil." This has been personified as "satan" or the "evil one" through the ages. Satan's first introduction is through the Biblical account in the old testament Book of Genesis where he was represented as a serpent who misled Eve and Adam into sinning by eating fruit from the Tree of Life. We see Satanism in three basic groupings today: 1. Adult Groups 2. Adult and Adolescent Groups 3. Adolescent Groups The second group combining adults and adolescents carries with it the most extreme potential for abuse and death of children if they are not related to the adults in the group. Those in Group number three, all adolescents, usually are experimenters with satanic rituals, not sincere, involved, knowledgeable practition- ers of pure traditions. However, ignorance of the true implications and some of the ritualized skills does not mean that adolescent satanism is any less dangerous. As with any other addiction, ever- deeper involvement occurs. Pure satanism requires intense training, initiation, screening, rituals and rites and an upward mobility within the satanic worship structure. Pure satanism is seen worldwide and (as with other deviant movements) is well-established in many forms, is multi-national, and has almost inexhaustible financial and physical resources. Satanic rituals have some parallels with pagan rituals. Satanists also locate a site which is isolated to insure privacy. Each satanic worship group has its own gremoire (pronounced GRA-MORE'-AY), which is also called the "Book of Shadows". On the the blank pages of this book, oaths and names are written in blood. The gremoire is very important evidence about the depth, structure, and activities of any particular satanic group. Recruitment into active satanism is a well-planned and subtle process which has devastating results. Initial introductions to the subculture of satanism are prevalent. In fact, they are seen everywhere we turn today. Signs, symbols and influences of satanic involvement can be observed in modern music, in the dress and activities of adolescent peers, through television, MTV, movies, clothing, games, and drug abuse. Since the late seventies a great deal of satanic symbolism has publicly surfaced in wide variety. What one sees everyday he tends to accept more easily. Although it is easy to stereotype all heavy metal, hard rock musicians as active satanists this is probably not true. There are some who do practice satanic worship. Much of the "hype" seen on album covers and in the movies are Hollywood publicists' attempts to create attention for their products. The effect on impressionable adolescents is that they become conversant with a wide variety of satanic symbolism and terminology and are therefore more easily drawn into active involve- ment, or at least away from traditional value systems. It is interesting to note that Jimmy Page, who is the lead drummer for Led Zepplin, lives in Alister Crowley's house in England. He is an active satanist. Such movies as ROSEMARY'S BABY, and the EXORCIST stress magic, the occult, and evil phenomenon which foster fear and helplessness in the minds of those who see them. The term "occult", an adjective, merely means "hidden or secret." The distinction must be made about specific types of activities which we have lumped together under one label. Modern clothing, "T" shirts and jewelry, so popular with the youth of this nation and the world, stress satanic and pagan symbols, representations of horrible specters, and demons. These tie in with the fantasy role playing phenomenon which anesthetizes chronic players to the actual spiritual implications of satanic involvement (See "Paganism"). (There have been 55 documented cases of deaths attributable to fantasy role playing games in the United States out of an estimated two million active players.) The addictive mentality(mentioned in Authoritarian Cult Groups) predisposes some adolescents to seek involvement in spiritual/supernatural manifes- tations. The heavy emphasis and involvement of today's youth in illicit drugs tends to blur their distinction between reality and fantasy opening the doors of their minds to accept and explore super- natural phenomenon. In effect, they begin to lose touch with what is actually real and become very vulnerable to suggestion. Irresponsible media coverage and sensationalism contribute to the overall attack on the stability of today's youthful minds. In addi- tion, a strong peer acceptance and support makes it almost impossible for those with addictive or dependent personalities to REFUSE to go along with the group. Active satanists use an insidious variety of approaches to entangle new converts ever deeper into satanism. Young people, as mentioned before, are very prone to such involvements. Mike Warnke, in his book "The Satan Seller", documents the progression which commonly is used to recruit new satanists. College campuses are a hot spot for recruitment. Easy drug availability and use provide a natural setting for recruitment. Warnke illustrated actual examples where he, as a former satanist priest, invited young people, starting in on the fringes of drug use, to parties where drugs and free sex were provided. In a back room, those higher in the satanic hierarchy prepared stronger doses of drugs which they offered freely to promising looking recruits. In the guise of sexual orgies (with drug and alcohol plentiful) new converts were drawn deeper into dependence on what the satanists could provide in the way of earthly pleasures. As they gave in to the lusts of their own desires they were drawn farther into dependency. They developed thirsts for other things also, such as, power and money. At each level the newcomers were scrutinized by those initiated into higher levels in the satanic movement and the best prospects were promoted. As the converts were initiated into the ritual meetings of the satanists they became more and more debased in what they did. In effect, the more detestable the ritual activity the bigger "spiritual high" the worshippers receive. The illegal debased acts include, but are not limited to, rape, sodomy, ritual mutilations, child molestations, cannabalism, desecration of Christian sacraments and ritual murder. The impact upon youthful worshippers has a devastating effect. Impres- sionable youths who feed on the negative and evil aspects of today's music and rebellious media representations, experience an erosion of the stable beliefs and value systems which give us security. As their insecurity increases they are drawn to some type of peer support. Involvement in the negative and illegal aspects of satan worship may debase the individual and cause them to be tormented by tremendous feelings of guilt and isolation because they have been unable to completely shed the traditional values with which they were raised. Satanism is very destructive to youth and there is much support for suicide among teens (who so quickly run out of perceived alternatives.) Occasionally teen peer groups will take blood oaths and make suicide covenants, i.e: so that if one commits suicide they will all do so. Anything which leads the youth of today to the "end of the line", where they see no alternative but self-imposed death, must be taken serious- ly. Because of misguided peer loyalty those who are knowledgeable about suicide pacts often protect their friends from authorities who would seek to prevent their suicide. By not wanting to risk ostracism by the peer group, youths may also protect friends and acquaintances who are involved in satanism. Television correspondent Tom Jarrell narrated a 20/20 segment entitled, "The Devil Worshippers." This documented a situation in Northport, Rhode Island where teenagers were involved in the ritual killing of another human being. In Phoenix, Arizona, officials found the carcass- es of over 140 dead dogs and thousands of animal mutilations due to satanic rituals. A situation in Walnut Grove, Alabama, involved the discovery of a ritual site complete with symbols and satanic graffiti indicating secret meetings were taking place on a regular basis. Such things as the numerals "666", inverted crosses, closed satanic stars or goat head stars, the "all-seeing eye", desecration of churches, refer- ences to the "beast" and a goat's head with a pentagram on its forehead are typical satanic symbols. The Church of Satan, as an established entity, has been officially recognized only in California. Its proponent is a man by the name of Anton Levey who wrote the SATANIC BIBLE. He is involved in active worship of satanism as a church, but denies any involvement in the illegal activities or illicit drugs. There are countless other satanic groups practicing rites and rituals which are very illegal. Although chants and incantations to satan are not illegal, per se, the higher levels of satan worship involve unequivocable violations of the law. On that basis, official action can be taken against satanic groups and satan worshippers individually. A forensic pathologist was allowed to video tape portions of an actual satanic ritual ceremony which involved mutilation of a dead human body. The origin of the body was not represented on the tape. (A coroner viewing the tape said that it appeared that the body was still fairly fresh at the time of the mutilation.) Cannibalism of the heart and a sexual orgy in the blood of the "sacrifice" were documented on the tape. Dr. Al Carlisle of the Utah State Prison System has estimated that between forty and sixty thousand human beings are killed through ritual homicides in the United States each year. Because of the level of secrecy and the effectiveness with which satanists cover their tracks it is impossible to completely verify this statistic. The statistic itself is based upon an estimated number of satanists at the level where they commit ritual human sacrifices times the frequency with which these would be done during a calendar year. Connections between satanists at this level, in various locales, also indicate that they cooperate back and forth in each other's ritual sacrifices. Dr. Carlisle estimated that in the Las Vegas metropolitan area alone six hundred people meet their deaths during satanic ritual ceremonies each year. On the tape of the satanic ceremony various ritual incantations were repeated by the priest and the group of worshippers who were arranged in a circle around the dead body. There was a strong emphasis on worshipping death. At one point the priest cut open the chest cavity of the corpse and tore out the heart which he passed around the circle giving each worshipper the opportunity to bite a piece of the heart off and chew it. On the video tape it appeared that the worshippers, partaking of this cannibalism, were developing physical ecstasy. The ceremony then degenerated as the worshippers discarded their clothing, took blood from the body cavity of the corpse, smeared it over their own bodies and proceeded to have a sexual orgy. Although not every satanist group completes ritual human sacrifices, they do partake of a wide variety of abusive sexual activities aimed at destroying innocence which satan must truly hate because the God of Christianity loves it. The 20/20 segment documented young juveniles, less than 10 years of age, who were drawn into active satan worship by their adult guardians and who assisted in the ritual slaying of other young juveniles who were tied to the satanic altar. The children themselves did not have the strength to force the knife into the victim's body far enough to kill. They described, in the interview, that as they held the knife an adult's hands assisted them in forcing it through the body of the victim. Generally victims bodies are effectively disposed of, usually by cremation. The level of secrecy and commitment to satan and the spiritual powers of darkness almost guarantee that participants do not talk about their activities. The problem is that we have many stories without identifiable victims. There is a need for growing awareness, in society about the potentialities of satanic involvement. Occasion- ally ritual murders and serial murders who have been linked to satanic worship are apprehended and prosecuted, but too often their stories are viewed as the exception... merely seen as a horrifying spectacle instead of a warning about a growing movement. Most normal people would rather not think about the horrors involved; They cannot easily accept the weight of the facts and their implications. More and more frequently children and adolescents are becoming the victims of ritual molestations and/or sacrifice. This is primarily because the more innocent and virginal the victim, the more satan, supposedly, likes it and therefore more power is imbued to the satanist. Children are much easier to recruit as potential victims than are adults. It is easier for satanists to kidnap them at a young age and move them from place to place. Adolescents have become very mobile in this society. They often run away or are displaced by disintegrating family structures. They are easily drawn into the victim role because no one with responsibility has an awareness of where they are or what they are doing. (Compilation of notes and material received at the I.P.T.M. Cults, Sects, and Deviant Movements Seminar, Jacksonville, Florida, in March, 1986. Lt. L. M. Jones, Boise Police Department.) 10

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