Green Pastures 017 - GP017.TXT

In this issue 017:

"Of Babies and Bath Water"

Why are atheists grossly under represented in the American prison system? Why are the majority religious systems which claim to hold the higher ethic and morality failing to live up to their claims?

Green Pastures takes a look at the prison system, several "prison outreach ministries" which are created by a wide spectrum of religions, and explores the responses given in explanation for the current state of affairs.

In the next issue 018:

"History revisionism Christian style: Denying Adolf Hitler."

What are the words of Adolf Hitler in regards his religious beliefs? What are the explanations of fellow religionists in response to Hitler's religion?

Green Pastures takes a look at the phenomena of the history revisionism which deny Adolf Hitler's religion and explores the explanations offered by fellow religionists for his agenda of genocide. Commentary solicited from a broad spectrum of religionists include the denial that Christian hate groups across the world are in any way Christian organizations.

In a future issue 019:

"What do Christians think of Wicca and Pagani?"

What are some of the claims made against Wicca and Pagani? How does the actual ideological attributes of Wicca and Pagani stack-up against these allegations? Who benefits from the perpetuation of these myths about Wicca and Pagani? What's the history of Wicca and Pagani?

Green Pastures takes a look at the ignorance surrounding Wicca and Pagani and explores the need for the "monotheistic" religions to demonize life-affirming religions.

Of Babies and Bath Water

What motivates your polite behavior?

One of the reasons often given for teaching one's children religious values is to impart upon them a sense of quality ethics and morality in the hopes of creating useful, non-destructive, polite members of society. The belief is that people require deity constructs to live ethically otherwise one is predisposed towards rape, thievery, and generally anti-social behavior. The argument usually goes something like the following:

Christian: Having no one to answer to grants you atheists no moral reasons to keep from doing as you wish, raping and killing as you see fit. My god will punish me, however, if I behave like that so I won't.

Atheist: That's nonsense. Historically the reverse has been true. In the past people like me who didn't hold deity construct beliefs were raped, tortured, and murdered by you Christians -- all under the guise of being justified as the wishes of your gods. And while you might find the idea of rape and murder a fun time, I most certainly don't.

Christian: But those weren't TRUE Christians! And even if they were you can't hold me responsible for their actions so long ago. If they rape and murder they can't be TRUE Christians!

Atheist: The only way to tell if someone is a "true Christian" is to ask them and to look at the historic record. All of history shows us that the only "true Christian" is the Christian asserting the claim at the time. As for holding you responsible, your own religion demands that all of humanity be held responsible for the actions of only two individuals. Additionally you know the bloody history of Christianity and yet you joined it any way; thus you must be in agreement with it.

Christian: But that's different! In the first place my god is holding us all responsible for the sin of Adam and Eve whereas you -- a mere mortal -- is holding all of us Christians responsible for the actions of non-Christians. My god isn't the moral equal to you mere humans -- most especially to you atheists.

Atheist: It is in no way different since it was men which created your deity constructs and concocted the elaborate mythologies which you believe in. Your religion holds billions of innocent people guilty for a pretend crime which never took place and yet me -- a "mere atheist" -- can simply point at history and prove that the religion you claim you willingly joined has been guilty of extreme amounts of tyranny, genocide, and injustice.

Christian: You're going to have to prove that men created my god and then you're going to have to prove that sin doesn't really exist. Then you're going to have to prove that all those people who raped, tortured, and murdered through the centuries were really Christians.

Atheist: It would take a number of years for me to cover the archeological and anthropological evidence which shows the origins of the Christian religion and, even while doing so, you wouldn't accept the scientific evidence any way. I can also show you the quotes from Christians down through the centuries and also show you the body counts they're responsible for -- all upon the orders of your gods, I might add.

Christian: That's nonsense! The fact that they raped, tortured, and murdered _shows_ that they weren't TRUE Christians! No TRUE Christian would do any of that! We have to answer to our god and that alone keeps all of us TRUE Christians from committing crimes. Anything you show me is evidence that atheists or non-Christians committed those atrocities and tyrannies you're speaking about!

And stop saying that I have "gods." There is only one god and that's my god!

Atheist: Thus we find the true reason why Christianity has the bloody history that it does. Few Christians ever take responsibility for the actions of their fellow club members.

When it is shown that the actions of fellow members are no longer politically acceptable, said Christians suddenly become atheists in your eyes, allowing the tyrannies to perpetuate themselves generation after generation. You ignore your responsibility to police your own and then leave it up to your deity constructs to punish your fellow Christians "after they're dead," allowing the ideologies which drove them and drives Christianity today to remain unchanged, generation after generation.

And I suggest you look up the meaning of the word "Elohim."

It has been my experience that the Christian will fall silent at this point else start quoting Christian mythology -- an attempt to make the voices go away, perhaps; that still, small voice that's telling them everything the atheist has said is undeniably true.

What's disturbing is the implied statement that if the Christians who believe atheism leads toward criminal behavior ever stop believing in their deity constructs, they will, as newly-discovered atheists, start engaging in criminal behavior. I would not want Christians to be living next door to me if this were at all true! It's a good thing for society that such a belief is an obviously evidenced lie.

    Ken Stuart (32564ce4.3867760@news.zippo.com) wrote in part:

"So, what other systems have been proposed by atheists to keep people from committing crimes against other people any time that they thought they could get away with it?"

Eric Roode (sdn@mv.mv.com) responded:

"Pick any legal system that has ever existed that has not been based explicitly upon the threat of eternal damnation by God. Say, to pick two quick examples, the legal systems of the United States and the former Soviet Union. Certainly there was enough threat of punishment to keep most of the people in line."

In fact the threat of punishment by secular sources isn't what keeps most of humanity from committing crimes -- it is the fact that humans are social animals who find the commission of most crimes emotionally repugnant. No deity constructs or secular punishments are required.

"Days of past and future blend into where we are today" - The Ship:

While it's undeniably true that the Christianity of the past has been the ideological basis of extreme evil and motivation for inhuman tyranny and atrocities, what about the Christianity of today? Does contemporary religion in general imbue humanity with enviable virtues that are lacking in the atheist community?

The next issue of Green Pastures will cover the many Christian hate groups in the United States and around the rest of the world yet today we'll focus on the criminal population residing within the United States prison system.

First, we need some raw numbers. The reasons I have offered these values will become clear later on. We're mostly interested in the religious beliefs -- of their lack -- in the prison populace.

What about the religions of these people?

These are the statistics that the prison system provided as a matter of course. The Department of Justice Statistics Clearinghouse, [1] however, will perform statistical look-ups from their data base on all other statistics that the general populace requests for a fee which is determined by the number of references which are returned by a keyword search.

I found that many prison officials will provide information freely upon request if you telephone them, and I have offered all of their addresses and telephone numbers (where provided) below.

None of the prison authorities I contacted publish statistical information on the religious affiliation of record that is part of many prison system's registration. None of them published the number of births of deaths which take place in the prison system (though Amnesty International does provide statistical information on the causes of deaths within prison systems.)

All of the individuals I contacted either by telephone or by email who responded to my request agreed that the percentages of religions (as well as lack of theist beliefs) held by the prison populace was -- surprise of all surprises! -- closely equal to the religious beliefs of the populace that prison serves. Thus nation-wide, in a country with the horrid statistic of finding itself with roughly 85% of the populace professing Christianity, 85% of the prison populace is Christian.

        From: "Arthur C. Amann" <aca@erie.net>
	Organization:  Erie County Prison
	Date:          Mon, 14 Oct 1996 13:05:52 -0500

Fredric: I don't believe there really is much information on this currently. Some institutions don't even ask for this type of data. However, I would say that most inmate populations pretty closely mirror the general area from which they emanate. For example, our educational level for the inmate population is only slightly lower than the general population in Erie County.

Those who found that the percentage of atheists in the prison system were under represented didn't have any clinical or causal explanation. The one suggestion which made the most sense was from Charles Fiterman:

        Charles Fiterman (cef@geode.geodesic.com) wrote:

            I suspect several factors.  The big one is that most
            crime in the United States is drug law related.  While
            atheists are tolerant of drug use by others they tend
            to be a sober group who take their reality straight up.

If you notice the statistics published by the prison system, it tends to support Mr. Fiterman's summation of the state of affairs. There is no indication that holding a religion either causes someone to engage in criminal activity or to refrain from engaging in criminal activity; those with the predisposition towards criminal behavior (either through general lawlessness or due to desperate circumstance) will engage in criminal activity regardless of whether they hold a religious belief or not.

That's important to read again: Holding a religion does nothing to preclude acting criminally, nor does it in itself make someone more predisposed toward criminal behavior. Christianity and Islam, of course, grants the criminal justification for their actions -- a cop-out of sluffing-off ones responsibility onto the shoulders of their gods. A good example is pedophiles finding sanctuary within the Christian church , resting easy in the knowledge that if they're found out the church will seek to protect them. (More on this a bit later.) But what prison officials find is that religion just doesn't impact criminal behavior one way or another.

The reason why that fact is important is because theists will tell us that their system or morality and ethics is superior to atheism. According to that theory the prison system should be over represented with atheists. It isn't ergo the theory is false. What we do find is that the Christian church itself is filled with criminals at its highest levels. The story of the sodomizing child-raping priest has become cliché in America -- and something of a stereotype which can be misleading. What's undeniably true is that Christian clergy child sexual abuse is epidemic in America and pandemic to all brand names of Christianity.

Austin Miles was a widely-known Christian preacher who traveled the world and spent all of his waking hours in the service of his gods. When he started to see what the Christian religion was actually like as opposed to what he believed it to have been all his life, he surfaced from the cult long enough to write two books, "Don't Call me Brother" and "Setting the Captives Free."

Don't Call me Brother is an excellent and direct look at the Christian religion from the eyes of one of its best. The "captive" was Austin Miles and fellow Christians like him who were duped into their beliefs. Sadly Austin has backslid into fundamentalism but his brief journey into the light of the real world left its mark. Most of note for this article was his eye-witness of how pedophiles are handled by the Christian religion.

        The prevalence of Assemblies of god ministers committing -- and
        getting away with -- child molestation is a horror of the first
        magnitude.  Reverend E. R. Schultz, District Secretary of the
        Florida District of the Assemblies, told me of a seventy-five-
        year-old pastor in his district who had recently been caught
        molesting a twelve-year-old girl. He had told the girl that it
        was time for her to learn about sex, that young boys would teach
        her wrong, so he would teach her about it properly.

"What did you do with him?" I asked.

"Transfered him out of the district," Schultz replied. Later, I learned that the offending pastor had been transferred to Florida from yet another district, where he had been involved in a similar incident. And Eugene Profeta was kicked out altogether for tipping his hairdresser twenty dollars!

Incidents of Assemblies ministers found patronizing prostitutes were on the rise. But that kind of sordid behavior tended to remain hidden, unless rivalries among preachers provided someone an incentive to expose the offending minister.

Even though I had become aware of the sexual perversion rampant among the ministers, I was so wrapped up in the church that I rationalized it all away. Perhaps god let me see all this to impress upon me that he needed true ministers through whom he could work miracles and bring about a revival. And did not Satan come as a wolf in sheep's clothing, or disguised as an angel of light? Looking back, I can see I clearly had lost perspective. Before I was "Saved," I would _never_ have even considered associating with such people!

Thus what we see in the news almost on a daily basis is an epidemic of child sexual molestation's by Christian priests. The policy of shipping these criminals from one church to the next becomes, in effect (though not, I will be kind, with intention) the creation of a "dating service" for pedophiles.

No atheist organization has this problem. Why? Because atheists are on the whole far more ethical and moral than their theist brothers and sisters. Because atheists don't have huge and financially well-off organizations protecting them. Because atheist organizations don't have a priesthood which actively condones child rape and protects the rapist!

Some numbers from the 1992 World Almanac on world population demographics. Note: Since 1992 the number of Christians in the United States had continued the previous three decades of slow decline and the statistics offered by the World Almanac didn't appear to offer a break-down of the percentages according to nation. Actual atheist percentage in the United States for the year 1996 are around 22%. (George Gallup Jr., in fact, got caught fiddling the numbers to try to make the decline appear to have stopped. CODESH and various other secular publications covered the Gallup attempt to deceive the people.)

        Nonreligious                  876,232,000    15.99%
                                            N-R + A = 1,116,542,000

Atheists 240,310,000 4.39% 20.37% Buddhists 314,939,000 5.75% 26.12% Jains 3,794,000 0.07% 26.19% Christians 1,833,022,000 33.45% Moslems 971,328,700 17.72% Hindus 732,812,000 13.37% Chinese folk religionists 187,107,000 3.41% New-Religionists 143,415,000 2.62% Tribal religionists 96,581,000 1.76% Sikhs 18,800,500 0.34% Jews 17,822,000 0.33% Shamanists 10,493,000 0.19% Confucians 6,028,000 0.11% Baha'is 5,517,000 0.10% Shintoists 3,222,800 0.06% Other religionists 18,586,000 0.34% 5,480,010,000 100.00%

Christianity is still a minority among the world's religions (thank the non-existent gods.) And yet religious wars inflicted upon the world due to Christian, Muslim, and Jewish ideologies accounts for most of the worlds' woes. Over population around the world accounts for the cause of such holy wars and yet it is the Christian religion which is the most vocal about advocating an end of birth control. Could it be that the reason people join the Christian religion in the first place is because they're miserable? Could it be that misery is a prime revenue maker for the Christian priesthood? Could it be that working to keep the world miserable, fighting against social progress, and actively making the world a living Hell is done out of greed?

Probably not. I'll be fair and suggest it's all secondary to the primary motivational factor: Ignorance and superstition.

Who's in prison, then?

According to all the available information, the average prison inmate is a white American age 37 serving a 5 to 10 year term in minimum security for a drug-related crime. And, most importantly, they are Christian. Accordingly there are a great many "Prison Outreach Ministries" catering to the Christian populace within the prison system. I also found several Jewish ministries and Buddhist support organizations to serve the prison system yet, as expected, they are few in number.

Though I received a great many responses from Christian "prison outreach" ministries, the best letter that I received is reproduced below. Keep in mind that this response is the best that I received. Since most Green Pastures readers are well aware of the more typical response expected, I'll not bother to include any of those that I received. Mr. Kaestner was without a doubt the most honest and "responsible" answer I received -- yet it's still a far cry from totally honest.

Note several things about this ministers response:

        From: Eric Kaestner <bbfi@baldwin.org>
	Organization: Bible Believers Fellowship, Inc.
	Date: 09/Oct/96

Dear Mr. Rice:

We have received your E-Mail dated October 9, 1996 in regard to your question about why are there so many Christians in prison and not as many Atheists.

When we last contacted you in response to your original question, we were not aware of the fact that you were an Atheist and your website is so offensive to the Christian principles we believe, as well as to our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. We had thought that you were a Christian minister of the Gospel who simply needed an answer in response to a question from a member of his flock. We have since discovered that that is not the case.

Nevertheless, we will attempt to answer your question and hope that it will be a help to you, however, this will be our last correspondence to you and we have no desire to have a continued dialogue on this issue or any other.

Here is the answer to your question. Jesus said, "Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of Heaven, but only he who does the will of My Father who is in Heaven. Many will say to Me on that day, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?' Then I will tell them plainly, 'I never knew you. Away from Me, you evildoers!'" (Matthew 7:21-23 NIV).

The question that you asked presupposes an incorrect conclusion.

There are many people in this world who call themselves Christians, but that doesn't mean that they love and serve God, or live according to the doctrines of the Bible or the Christian faith. Moreover, there are many people in prison today who call themselves Christians, and there are two primary reasons for this. Reason number one, the Bible tells us that, "For such men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, masquerading as apostles of Christ. And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness. Their end will be what their actions deserve" (2 Cor. 11:13-15 NIV).

We will ask you a question in return, however, I do not wish a response. If the devil can have so many of his children doing the will of their father, Satan, and calling themselves Christians, why would he need an Atheist?

In the days of Christ, the Pharisees and Sadducees believed that they were doing the will of God because they kept the Ten Commandments in their own eyes and were meticulous about the ceremonial aspects of Judaism. However, they did not know the Son of God or recognize Him when He stood before them in the flesh. And Jesus recognized them for who they were. He said to them, "You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your father's desire. He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies. Yet because I tell the truth, you do not believe Me!" (John 8:44-45 NIV). The devil is, above all things, deceitful and it serves his motive better if Christ and true Christians receive the blame for the evil that Satan and his servants commit.

Down through history there has been more bloodshed, more wars, more torture, more violence, more acts of wickedness and evil conducted as a result of religion than can be imagined. Much of that occurred at the hand of people who claimed to be Christians. During World War II, it was the Nazis who murdered millions of Jews and yet, while they were doing it, they called themselves Christians! Christ Himself was Jewish. He does not hate Jewish people. And as a Gentile, my Savior, Jesus Christ, came into the world as a Jew. The Bible was written, both Old Testament and New, by Jews that loved and served God. True believers in Christ, even if they are Gentiles, have much to be grateful for to the Jewish people. It is the devil who hates the Jews, not true Christians. The reason for this is because our salvation, Jesus Christ, came into this world as a Jew and Christianity has its roots in Judaism.

The second reason why there are lots of Christians in prison is because, as a result of ministries like ours, and chaplains who love and serve Christ, many prison inmates come to the Lord for salvation after being imprisoned. However, not all of them remain faithful to Him after they get out of prison.

What I would recommend to you is that you purchase a copy of "Halley's Bible Handbook", it is published by Zondervan Publishing House, and read something of church history. I think it may be of help to you. Also, several books that would explain the hypocrisy that has gone on in the church are, "The Seduction of Christianity", by Dave Hunt, "Beyond Seduction", by Dave Hunt, "Prophets of Psychoheracy", by Martin and Deidre Bobgan, and "Psychoheracy" by the Bobgans.

I hope this has been helpful to you. ------------------------------------------------------------ Bible Believers Fellowship, Inc. P.O. Box 0065 Baldwin, NY 11510-0065

Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature

Lastly I've managed to find a few studies which indicate that holding a religious belief tends to make one a "slightly" more moral individual than an individual who doesn't hold theistic religious beliefs. I've offered it here -- even though I have made no attempt to provide an unbiased, objective report -- there is some merit in the possibility that, while most people in the prison system are Christians, there remains the belief that religion still has a baby in all that bath water:

        9/11/93 edition of the _San Jose Mercury News_.
        NOT AS I PREACH, By Richard Scheinin

When it comes to lying on job resumes, cheating on exams or plagiarizing reports, folks who consider themselves devout churchgoers often leave their ethics at the chapel door when they return to their homes and jobs.

In fact, according to a soon-to-be-released report, the ethical behavior of people who say religion is "essential" to their lives is often not distinguishable from the behavior of those who describe religion as "unimportant."

The findings "run counter-intuitive to what many people expect," says Michael Josephson, founder of the Josephson Institute of Ethics in Marina del Ray, which researched and produced "Ethics, Values, Attitudes and Behavior in America: the Impact of Religious Belief, Gender and Age."

"There's a general assumption that people make that religious people are more honest than non-religious people," says Josephson. "They are," he says, pausing for emphasis. "Slightly."

Josephson based his opinion on the results of interviews about ethical behavior with nearly 9,000 people, 60 percent under age 25. More than 5,000 responded to questions about the degree of their religiosity.

Among other things, the report says 13 percent of the people who regard religion as "essential" have lied to get jobs (as opposed to 5 percent of irreligious people); that 36 percent of the same religious group cheated on exams as high school seniors (compared with 39 percent of irreligious people); that 30% percent of respondents who regard religion as "essential" cheated in college (as opposed to 29 percent for the irreligious); and that 20 percent of them admitted to submitting other people's their own (as opposed to 21 percent of their irreligious counterparts).

There were some brighter spots for the religious group: Only 18 percent admitted to stealing merchandise from a store in the past year (29 percent of the irreligious said they had done so).

And those who say religion is "essential" were less cynical: They tended to disagree that it is necessary to lie or cheat to get ahead in society, and were less likely to say they would be willing to do so. "The religious people are much more optimistic about their own virtue," says Josephson.

What does this it all add up to?

"It sounds like original sin continues to flourish, and that is not news," says the Rev. Richard John Neuhaus, the social commentator who edits "First things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life."

...The institute set out to analyze the overall impact of religious faith on behavior, without categorizing those who responded according to their specific denominations or faiths. Those who responded to questions about religiosity fell into four groups: those who said religion was "unimportant;" those who said it was "somewhat important"; those who said it was "very important"; and, finally, those who said it was "essential" to their lives.

Only when considering the extremes -- the groups who characterized religion as "unimportant" and "essential" -- were there any discernible differences in ethical behavior. Otherwise, the "unimportant" group's behavior was indistinguishable from the others.'

There is a large body of research that indicates what religious people think about proper ethical behavior, but a somewhat smaller body that attempts to analyze how their beliefs translate into action.

A 1992 Gallup study showed that church members are more charitable than non-members: 78 percent of church members had made donations of food, clothing or other property in the previous year (as opposed to 66 percent of non-members); 54 percent had "directly helped" a needy neighbor (42 percent of non-members did so); and 37 percent "directly helped" a homeless person (compared with 33 percent of non-members).

Other surveys show that religious people are somewhat less likely to drive while intoxicated or steal in the workplace. But, as with the Josephson study, the manner in which people characterize their religiosity does not always seem to have a dramatic effect on the way they live out their lives. Perhaps that's not surprising.

"One would like to believe that people who think of themselves as devout Christians would also behave in a manner that is in accord with Christian ethics," says Neuhaus. "But pastorally and existentially, I know that that is not the case -- and never has been the case."

E-Mail to Rod Swift:

Dear Mr. Swift:

The Federal Bureau of Prisons does have statistics on religious affiliations of inmates. The following are total number of inmates per religion category:

Adventist                    621
American Indian             2408
Atheist                      156
Bahai                          9
Buddhist                     882
Catholic                   29267
Church of Christ            1303
Hindu                        119
Jehovah Witness              665
Jewish                      1325
Krishna                        7
Moorish                     1066
Mormon                       298
Muslim                      5435
Nation                      1734
No Preference              13878
Orthodox                     375
Pentecostal                 1093
Protestant                 26162
Rasta                       1485
Santeria                     117
Scientology                  190
Sikh                          14
Unknown                     4503
Total                     96,968

I hope that this information is helpful to you.


Denise Golumbaski
Research Analyst
Federal Bureau of Prisons

by Wayne Aiken, North Carolina Director

It's surprising how many people remark to me, "You're an Atheist? You must have no conscience about committing crime then." Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, if we examine the population of our prisons, we see a very different picture.

In "The New Criminology," Max D. Schlapp and Edward E. Smith say that two generations of statisticians found that the ratio of convicts without religious training is about 1/10th of 1%. W.T. Root, Professor of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh, examined 1,916 prisoners and said, "Indifference to religion, due to thought, strengthens character," adding that Unitarians, Agnostics, Atheists and Free-Thinkers were absent from penitentiaries, or nearly so.

During 10 years in Sing-Sing, of those executed for murder 65% were Catholics, 26% Protestants, 6% Hebrew, 2% Pagan, and less than 1/3 of 1% non-religious.

Steiner and Swancara surveyed Canadian prisons and found 1,294 Catholics, 435 Anglicans, 241 Methodists, 135 Baptists, and 1 Unitarian. Dr. Christian, Superintendent of the N.Y. State Reformatories,checked records of 22,000 prison inmates and found only 4 college graduates. In "Who's Who," 91% were college graduates; Christian commented that "intelligence and knowledge produce right living," and, "crime is the offspring of superstition and ignorance."

Surveyed Massachusetts reformatories found every inmate to be religious. In Joliet Prison, there were 2,888 Catholics, 1,020 Baptists, 617 Methodists and no prisoners identified as non-religious.

Michigan had 82,000 Baptists and 83,000 Jews in the state population; but in the prisons, there were 22 times as many Baptists as Jews, and 18 times as many Methodists as Jews. In Sing-Sing, there were 1,553 inmates, 855 of them (over half) Catholics, 518 Protestants, 117 Jews, and 8 non-religious.

Steiner first surveyed 27 states and found 19,400 Christians, 5,000 with no preference and only 3 Agnostics (one each in Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Illinois). A later, more exhaustive survey found 60,605 Christians, 5,000 Jews, 131 Pagans, 4,000 "no preference," and only 3 Agnostics.

In one 19-state survey, Steiner found 15 non-believers, Spiritualists, Theosophists, Deists, Pantheists and 1 Agnostic among nearly 83,000 inmates. He labeled all 15 as "anti-christians." The Elmira, N.Y. reformatory system overshadowed all others, with nearly 31,000 inmates, including 15,694 Catholics (half) and 10,968 Protestants, 4,000 Jews, 325 refusing to answer, and 0 unbelievers.

In the East, over 64% of inmates are Roman Catholic. Throughout the national prison population, they average 50%. A national census of the general population found Catholics to be about 15% (and they count from the diaper up). Hardly 12% are old enough to commit a crime, and half of these are women. That leaves an adult Catholic population of 6% supplying 50% of the prison population.



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